This lesson brings to a close the discussion on Elements of Scientific Research. So far, we have discussed the following elements: Concepts, Constructs, Variables, Research Problem, Research Objectives, Research Questions and Hypotheses. In this lesson, we are going to discuss Relations, Definition of Terms, Theoretical and Conceptual Framework.
Variables are said to be related if a change in the value of one brings a change in the value of the other i.e. when we say that there is a relationship between X and Y, we are saying that a change in X brings a change in Y. In statistics, relationship is established by calculating correlation coefficient, denoted as r. Correlation coefficient plays two roles: to determine the strength/magnitude and determine the direction.
Concepts are defined by conceptual definition while variables are defined by operational definition.
A theory is an explanation of a phenomena after observing it for a long time. Therefore every problem has a theory behind it and that is what theoretical framework is all about.
A conceptual framework is a mental picture that shows the relationship between variables. It is drawn by the researcher and should be explained.